Write down the scope of microbiology?
The scope of microbiology :-
Production of Antibiotics
Antibiotics are capable of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. Antibiotics are mainly of two types; bacteriostatics (inhibit the gowth of bacteria) and bactericidals (kill the bacteria).Alexander Fleming (1929) discovered the penicillin from Penicillium notatum.
Examples of some bacteria and fungi which produce antibiotics are given below:
|Name of Bacterium||Name of Antibiotic|
|Streptomyces aureofaciens||Aureomycin (Tetracycline)|
|Name of fungi||Name of Antibiotic|
In alcohol & vinegar industry
Yeast is used in the fermentation of carbohydrate to produce alcohol. One glucose molecule is converted into two ethanol molecules and two carbon dioxide molecules. Clostridium acetobutylicum takes part in the manufacture of butyl alcohol. The production of vinegar (acetic acid) takes place with the help of bacterial actions. In the first step, the carbohydrates undergo fermentation and converted into ethanol through the action of yeast. In the second step, the aerobic bacteria for example, Acetobacter aceti and Mycoderma aceti oxidise the alcohol into acetic acid.
There are various types of vitamins obtained from the microorganisms e.g., Riboflavins(B₂) is obtained from Clostridium butylicum
Cobalamins (B12) obtained from Pseudomonas denitrificans.
Vitamins A,C,D and E are mostly found in algae.
Fungi (yeast) have high content of Vit B₁ Vit B₁2 and Vit C.
Productions of Acids and enzymes
List of microorganisms helping in production of acids and enzymes are:
|Penicillium glaucum||Gallic acid|
|Aspergillus gallomyces||Gallic acid|
|Aspergillus niger||Gluconic Acid|
Yeast is used in the manufacture of bread. Kneaded flour is mixed with yeast and allowed to ferment. Yeast converts starch into sugars and sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide with the help of enzyme, zymase. Carbon dioxide is released when effervescence takes place due to which bread becomes spongy (porous) and gets swollen and is of light weight.
Cosmetics and Perfume
Some species of lichens like Evernia and Ramatina are used for making perfumery goods and soaps. A mucilaginous substance Carrageenin is excreted from sea weeds used in the manufacture of ice creams, paints and shampoo etc.
Used in the production of dairy products
Dairy products such as curd, butter, cheese and ghee are manufactured from bacterial activity. List of microorganisms used in diary industry are:
|Streptococcus lactis & Streptococcus cremoris||Butter milk|
Agriculture & Soil fertility
Nitrogen is an essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids and other nitrogen containing compounds. The plants take nitrogen in the form of nitrates. Nitrogen Fixation is done by many organisms like Algae (Anabina, Nostoc), Bacteria (Nitrosomonas and nitrobacter),Root nodules of leguminous plants(Rhizobium leguminosarum).Saprophyte fungi disintegrate the decaying organic matter and thus help in release of minerals can begins absorbed by plants.
Used as food
Many algae Gelidium , Gracilaria etc. Produce agar-agar, a jelly substances used in the manufacture of ice cream.Saragassum and macrocystis are used as food for marine as well as domestic animals. Some seaweed for example, Laminaria contains a lot of iodine which is an important mineral in the thyroid gland. Lichens like Reindeer moss (Cladonia rangiferina) of the arctic region is eaten by reindeers and cattle. Iceland moss (Cetraria islandica) has been used as food by man in Iceland.
Scope of microbiology is very broad.